Ted S. Gross, Ph.D.





Post-Doc University of Calgary - Joint Disease (1995)
Ph.D. SUNY Stony Brook - Mechanical Engineering (1993)
M.S. Penn State University - Sport Biomechanics (1985)
B.S. Trinity U., Texas - Engineering Science (1983)


Research Interests

Some current areas of research interest include: 1) understanding why exercise only modestly enhances bone mass in humans but is extremely efficacious in pre-clinical models, 2) exploring the early inter-cellular signaling underlying rapid bone resorption induced by neuromuscular dysfunction, and 3) translational studies of how transient muscle paralysis alters development of heterotopic ossification and bone regeneration.


Current Academic Appointments

Vice Chair for Research
Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington (2014 to Present)

Professor and Director
Orthopaedic Science Laboratories, Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington (2007 to Present)

Adjunct Professor
Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington (2007 to Present)



Borelli Award, American Society of Biomechanics (2016)
Editorial Board, Journal of Orthopaedic Research (2015-17)
Fellow, American Society of biomechanics (2012)
President Elect, President, Past-President, American Society of Biomechanics (2004-07)
Editorial Board, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2004-2010)
Secretary-Treasurer, American Society of Biomechanics (2001-2004)
Journal of Biomechanics Award, American Society of Biomechanics (2001)
Sigvard T. Hansen, Jr. Endowed Chair in Orthopaedic Traumatology (2000)
Young Scientist Award, American Society of Biomechanics (1996)
New Investigator Recognition Award, Orthopaedic Research Society (1994)
Arthritis Society/Medical Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship (1993-95)
Alberta Heritage Medical Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship (1993-95)
University of Calgary Postdoctoral Fellowship (1993)


Topical Publications

  1. Srinivasan, S., Balsiger, D., Huber, P., Ausk, B.J., Bain, S.D., Gardiner, E.M., Gross, T.S. (2019).  Static preload inhibits loading induced bone formation, JBMR Plus, DOI: 10.1002/jbm4.10087
  2. Worton, L.E., Gardiner, E.M., Kwon, R.Y., Downey, L.M., Ausk, B.J., Bain, S.D., Gross, T.S. (2018).  Botulinum toxin A-induced muscle paralysis stimulates Hdac4 and differential miRNA expression. PLoS One, 13(11):e0207354. PMID: 30427927.
  3. Ausk, B.J., Worton, L.E., Smigiel, K., Kwon, R.Y., Bain, S.D., Srinivasan, S., Gardiner, E.M., Gross, T.S. (2017).  Muscle Paralysis Induces Bone Marrow Inflammation and Predisposition to Formation of Giant Osteoclasts, AJP: Cell, 313(5):C533-C540. PMID: 28855162.
  4. Ausk BJ, Gross TS, Bain SD. Botulinum Toxin-induced Muscle Paralysis Inhibits Heterotopic Bone Formation. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Sep;473(9):2825-30. doi: 10.1007/s11999-015-4271-4. PubMed PMID: 25804882; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4523519.
  5. Srinivasan S., Ausk B.J., Bain S.D., Gardiner E.M., Kwon R.Y., Gross TS. (2015). Rest intervals reduce the number of loading bouts required to enhance bone formation. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 47:1095-103. PMID: 25207932.
  6. Worton LE, Kwon RY, Gardiner EM, Gross TS, Srinivasan S. Enhancement of Flow-Induced AP-1 Gene Expression by Cyclosporin A Requires NFAT-Independent Signaling in Bone Cells. Cell Mol Bioeng. 2014 Jun 1;7(2):254-265. doi: 10.1007/s12195-014-0321-3. PubMed PMID: 25484988; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4255985.
  7. Ausk BJ, Huber P, Srinivasan S, Bain SD, Kwon RY, McNamara EA, Poliachik SL, Sybrowsky CL, Gross TS. Metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone loss in the tibia following transient muscle paralysis are spatiotemporally distinct resorption events.Bone. 2013 Dec;57(2):413-22. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2013.09.009. Epub 2013 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 24063948; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3865853.
  8. Aliprantis AO, Stolina M, Kostenuik PJ, Poliachik SL, Warner SE, Bain SD, Gross TS. Transient muscle paralysis degrades bone via rapid osteoclastogenesis. FASEB J. 2012 Mar;26(3):1110-8. doi: 10.1096/fj.11-196642. Epub 2011 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 22125315; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3289507.