William Ledoux, Ph.D.

Affiliate Professor

William Ledoux, PhD
Ph.D. Engineering in Bioengineering, August 1999 University of Pennsylvania, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Philadelphia, PA Concentrations: musculoskeletal modeling, emphasizing the foot; soft tissue biomechanics; gait analysis

M.S. Engineering in Bioengineering, August 1993 University of Pennsylvania, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Philadelphia, PA Concentration: rehabilitation engineering

B.S. Biomedical Engineering, May 1992 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, School of Engineering, Troy, NY Concentration: materials science Minor: management

Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Orthopaedics & Sports Medicine

Department of Veterans Affairs, RR&D Center for Limb Loss and MoBility (CLiMB)”, Veterans Affairs


Dr. Ledoux's research has been devoted to preventing limb loss, either functionally or anatomically. He has used CT, MRI, motion analysis, and more recently, a custom developed biplane fluoroscope, to quantify reduced lower limb function (i.e., functional limb loss) in different foot types (flat feet and high arched) compared to neutrally aligned feet. He has studied the functional aspects of various orthopedic foot maladies using the custom developed Robotic Gait Simulator. Additionally, he has explored functional differences between ankle fusion and ankle joint replacement for end-stage ankle arthritis. Anatomical limb loss prevention has involved quantifying the mechanical, histological and biochemical differences between normal and diabetic plantar soft tissue and foot ligaments. Dr. Ledoux has also developed a patient-specific finite element foot model, including customized anatomy and tissue properties, for the purpose of quantifying the effects of increased tissue stiffness and foot deformity on internal tissue stresses. Finally, Dr. Ledoux has explored the complex relationship between foot type and diabetic ulceration.

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  1. Kimura T, Thorhauer ED, Kindig MW, Shofer JB, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Neuropathy, claw toes, intrinsic muscle volume, and plantar aponeurosis thickness in diabetic feet. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2020 Jul 23;21(1):485. doi: 10.1186/s12891-020-03503-y.PMID: 32703177
  2. Buckner BC, Stender CJ, Baron MD, Hornbuckle JHT, Ledoux WR, Sangeorzan BJ. Does Coronal Plane Malalignment of the Tibial Insert in Total Ankle Arthroplasty Alter Distal Foot Bone Mechanics? A Cadaveric Gait Study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2020 Jul;478(7):1683-1695. doi: 10.1097/CORR.0000000000001294.PMID: 32574472
  3. Martin JA, Kindig MW, Stender CJ, Ledoux WR, Thelen DG. Calibration of the shear wave speed-stress relationship in in situ Achilles tendons using cadaveric simulations of gait and isometric contraction. J Biomech. 2020 Jun 9;106:109799. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2020.109799. Epub 2020 Apr 20.PMID: 32517985
  4. Imsdahl SI, Stender CJ, Cook BK, Pangrazzi G, Patthanacharoenphon C, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Anteroposterior translational malalignment of ankle arthrodesis alters foot biomechanics in cadaveric gait simulation. J Orthop Res. 2019 Sep 10. doi: 10.1002/jor.24464. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31502697
  5. McKearney DA, Stender CJ, Cook BK, Moore ES, Gunnell LM, Monier BC, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Altered range of motion and plantar pressure in anterior and posterior malaligned total ankle arthroplasty: A cadaveric gait study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2019 Sep 18;101(18):e93. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.18.00867. PMID: 31567808
  6. Norvell DC, Ledoux WR, Shofer JB, Hansen ST, Davitt J, Anderson JG, Bohay D, Coetzee JC, Maskill J, Brage M, Houghton M, Sangeorzan BJ. Effectiveness and safety of ankle arthrodesis versus arthroplasty: A prospective multicenter study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2019 Aug 21;101(16):1485-1494. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.18.01257. PMID: 31436657
  7. Shofer JB, Ledoux WR, Orendurff MS, Hansen ST, Davitt J, Anderson JG, Bohay D, Coetzee JC, Houghton M, Norvell DC, Sangeorzan BJ. Step activity after surgical treatment of ankle arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2019 Jul 3;101(13):1177-1184. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.18.00511. PMID: 31274719
  8. Moore ES, Kindig MW, McKearney DA, Telfer S, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Hind- and Midfoot Bone Morphology Varies with Foot Type and Sex. J Orthop Res. 2018 Dec 11. doi: 10.1002/jor.24197. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30537297
  9. Johnson L, Richburg C, Lew M, Ledoux W, Aubin P, Rombokas E. 3D Printed lattice microstructures to mimic soft biological materials, Bioinspir Biomim. 2018 Sep 13. doi: 10.1088/1748-3190/aae10a. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30210061
  10. Pihl CM, Stender CJ, Balasubramanian R, Edinger KM, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Passive engineering mechanism enhancement of a flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer procedure. J Orthop Res. 2018 May 18. doi: 10.1002/jor.24051. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 29774947
  11. Norvell DC, Shofer JB, Hansen ST, Davitt J, Anderson JG, Bohay D, Coetzee JC, Maskill J, Brage M, Houghton M, Ledoux WR, Sangeorzan BJ. Frequency and impact of adverse events in patients undergoing surgery for end stage ankle arthritis. Foot Ankle Int. 2018 Sep;39(9):1028-1038. doi: 10.1177/1071100718776021. Epub 2018 May 31. PMID: 29852755
  12. Segal AD, Cyr KM, Stender CJ, Whittaker EC, Hahn ME, Orendurff MS, Ledoux WR, Sangeorzan BJ. A three-year prospective comparative gait study between patients with ankle arthrodesis and arthroplasty. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2018 May;54:42-53. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2018.02.018. Epub 2018 Mar 5. PMID: 29550642
  13. Iaquinto JM, Kindig MW, Haynor DR, Vu Q, Pepin N, Tsai R, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Model-based tracking of the bones of the foot: A biplane fluoroscopy validation study. Comput Biol Med. 2018 Jan 1;92:118-127. doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2017.11.006. Epub 2017 Nov 8. PMID: 29175098
  14. Wang YN, Lee K, Shofer JB, Ledoux WR. Histomorphological and biochemical properties of plantar soft tissue in diabetes. Foot (Edinb). 2017 Dec;33:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.foot.2017.06.001. Epub 2017 Jun 7. PMID: 29126035
  15. Benich MR, Ledoux WR, Orendurff MS, Shofer JB, Hansen ST, Davitt J, Anderson JG, Bohay D, Coetzee JC, Maskill J, Brage M, Houghton M, Sangeorzan BJ. Comparison of treatment outcomes of arthrodesis and two generations of ankle replacement implants. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2017 Nov 1;99(21):1792-1800. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.16.01471. PMID: 29088033
  16. Vander Griend RA, Younger ASE, Buedts K, Chiodo CP, Coetzee JC, Ledoux WR, Pinzur MS, Prasad KSRK, Queen RM, Saltzman CL, Thordarson DB. Total ankle arthroplasty: Minimum follow-up policy for reporting results and guidelines for reporting problems and complications resulting in reoperations. Foot Ankle Int. 2017 Jul;38(7):703-704. doi: 10.1177/1071100717716110. No abstract available. PMID: 28682140
  17. Williams ED, Stebbins MJ, Cavanagh PR, Haynor DR, Chu B, Fassbind MJ, Isvilanonda V, Ledoux WR. A preliminary study of patient-specific mechanical properties of diabetic and healthy plantar soft tissue from gated MRI. Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2017 Jul;231(7):625-633. doi: 10.1177/0954411917695849. Epub 2017 Mar 17. PMID: 28661227
  18. Telfer S, Kindig M, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Metatarsal shape and foot type: A geometric morphometric analysis. J Biomech Eng. 2017 Mar 1;139(3). doi: 10.1115/1.4035077. PMID: 27802481
  19. Ledoux WR, Pai S, Shofer JB, Wang Y-N. The association between mechanical and biochemical/histological characteristics in diabetic and non-diabetic plantar soft tissue. J Biomech. 2016 Aug 24. pii: S0021-9290(16)30931-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.08.021. Epub 2016 Aug 24. PMID: 27623704
  20. Isvilanonda V, Iaquinto JM, Pai S, Mackenzie-Helnwein P, Ledoux WR. Hyperelastic compressive mechanical properties of the subcalcaneal soft tissue: An inverse finite element analysis. J Biomech. 2016 May 3;49(7):1186-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.03.003. Epub 2016 Mar 8. PMID: 27040391
  • Functional And Anatomical Limb Loss Prevention
  • The Effect Of Diabetes On The Mechanical Properties Of Soft Tissue
  • Quantifying Foot Biomechanics Via Cadaveric Gait Simulation And Biplane Fluoroscopy
  • Patient Specific Finite Element Foot Modeling
  • Comparing Ankle Arthroplasty And Ankle Arthrodesis
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